Present Perfect Continuous: Recognise

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Recognise: Present Perfect Continuous


Structures of Present Perfect Continuous

Let's first have a look at the structure of the Present Perfect Continuous in terms of the various grammatical moods (indicative, interrogative, imperative) and in terms of polarity (positive and negative). And also: third person form where different, and with a modal (here: could).

HAVE + BEEN + -ING FORM (Present Participle)

Positive Structures
indicative I have been running.
indicative contracted I've been running.
interrogative Have you been studying?
imperative NOT APPLICABLE
3rd person singular indicative She has been managing.
3rd person singular indicative contracted She's been managing.
3rd person singular interrogative Has he been eating?
Positive Structures with Modal
indicative with modal He could have been driving.
indicative with modal contracted I could've been playing.
interrogative with modal Could she have been pretending?

Negative Structures
indicative I have not been working.
indicative contracted (1) I haven't been smoking.
indicative contracted (2) I've not been riding.
interrogative Have you not been travelling?
interrogative contracted Haven't they been cleaning?
imperative NOT APPLICABLE
3rd person singular indicative She has been managing.
3rd person singular indicative contracted He's been talking.
3rd person singular interrogative Has it not been running?
3rd person singular interrogative contracted Hasn't she been eating?
Negative Structures with Modal
indicative with modal He could not have been working.
indicative with modal contracted They couldn't have been investigating.
interrogative with modal Could she not have been teaching?
interrogative with modal contracted Couldn't it have been snowing?

RECOGNISE: Present Perfect Continuous

If students would like a methodical approach to being sure that they know what tense they are looking at then I propose something like this (The "I.F. + A'Loop"):

The "IF and A'loop" Recognise Model

Use I.F. - To get Tense/Modal and to Convert to the Tense Infinitive

  1. INDICATIVE: convert to the indicative form
    • QUESTION: "Can you go?" => "You can go."
    • NEGATIVE: "They didn't travel." => "They travelled"
    • NB - The auxiliary 'DO DID etc' will disappear.
    • IMPERATIVE: "Run" => "You run."
  2. FIRST WORDS
    • First Word is the Person (1st 2nd 3rd, Singular or Plural)
    • Note and Remove
    • Second Word is the Tense or the Modal
    • MODAL: Note and Remove
    • TENSE (Past or Present): Note and Convert to Bare infinitive
    • HAD => HAVE, RAN =>RUN, WAS => BE, etc

Let's use I.F. with the Present Perfect Continuous

She can't have been playing.
Negative? Question? Click me! Negative.
Indicative Click me! She can have been playing.
Person Click me! 3rd
Tense/Modal Click me! CAN
Tense Infinitive Click me! HAVE BEEN PLAYING
Haven't they been working?
Negative? Question? Click me! Negative Question
Indicative Click me! They have been working
Person Click me! 3rd
Tense/Modal Click me! PRESENT
Tense Infinitive Click me! HAVE BEEN WORKING
Should I have been studying?
Negative? Question? Click me! Question
Indicative Click me! I should have been working
Person Click me! 1st
Tense/Modal Click me! SHOULD
Tense Infinitive Click me! HAVE BEEN STUDYING

Many times it is possible to see the Infinitive Form of the tense quickly, next is the Auxiliary Loop (A'Loop).

The A'Loop to Find the Tense

  1. Is the FIRST WORD: the LAST word?
    • This is the verb!!!
  2. ...if not...

    The FIRST WORD is BE or HAVE!

    The second word is -ING or Past Participle!

  3. Is the FIRST WORD: HAVE followed by the past participle?
    • This is the PERFECT Aspect.
    • Note and Remove HAVE
    • Convert the past participle to INFINITIVE
    • Start A'Loop Again
  4. Is the FIRST WORD: BE followed by -ing?
    • This is the CONTINUOUS Aspect.
    • Note and Remove BE
    • Convert the -ING to INFINITIVE
    • Start A'Loop Again
  5. Is the FIRST WORD: BE followed by the past participle?
    • This is the PASSIVE Voice.
    • Note and Remove BE
    • Convert the past participle to INFINITIVE
    • Start A'Loop Again (Must be last word)
  6. Is the FIRST WORD: HAVE followed by the past participle?
    • This is the PERFECT Aspect.
    • Note and Remove HAVE
    • Convert the past participle to INFINITIVE
    • Start A'Loop Again

Let's use the A'Loop with the Present Perfect Continuous!

HAVE BEEN WRITING
LAST WORD? HAVE + PP? BE + -ING? BE + PP?
= Verb = Perfect = Continuous = Passive
? NO ? YES ? ?
Convert -ING/PP to INFINITIVE -dont use if ended
Click me! BE WRITING
LAST WORD? HAVE + PP? BE + -ING? BE + PP?
= Verb = Perfect = Continuous = Passive
? NO ? NO ? YES ?
Convert -ING/PP to INFINITIVE -dont use if ended
Click me! WRITE
LAST WORD? HAVE + PP? BE + -ING? BE + PP?
= Verb = Perfect = Continuous = Passive
? YES ? ? ?
The Verb is TO WRITE
[Sourced: EnglishAdam.com]

Test Your Knowledge!

Question


Have they been sleeping well?

VERB?
Tense/Modal/Structure
ASPECT(s)
VOICE


Click to show

Answer


To Sleep
Present
Perfect Continuous
Active

Notes


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Notes


No specific notes on this question yet, sorry.
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