We use basic cookies to provide this service, CLICK FOR MORE INFO

Privacy Policy for English Adam

At English Adam, accessible from https://www.englishadam.com, one of our main priorities is the privacy of our visitors. This Privacy Policy document contains types of information that is collected and recorded by English Adam and how we use it.

If you have additional questions or require more information about our Privacy Policy, do not hesitate to contact us through email at adam@gamemorize.com

Log Files

English Adam follows a standard procedure of using log files. These files log visitors when they visit websites. All hosting companies do this and a part of hosting services' analytics. The information collected by log files include internet protocol (IP) addresses, browser type, Internet Service Provider (ISP), date and time stamp, referring/exit pages, and possibly the number of clicks. These are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable. The purpose of the information is for analyzing trends, administering the site, tracking users' movement on the website, and gathering demographic information.

Cookies and Web Beacons

Like any other website, English Adam uses 'cookies'. These cookies are used to store information including visitors' preferences, and the pages on the website that the visitor accessed or visited. The information is used to optimize the users' experience by customizing our web page content based on visitors' browser type and/or other information.

Google DoubleClick DART Cookie

Google is one of a third-party vendor on our site. It also uses cookies, known as DART cookies, to serve ads to our site visitors based upon their visit to www.website.com and other sites on the internet. However, visitors may choose to decline the use of DART cookies by visiting the Google ad and content network Privacy Policy at the following URL – https://policies.google.com/technologies/ads

Our Advertising Partners

Some of advertisers on our site may use cookies and web beacons. Our advertising partners are listed below. Each of our advertising partners has their own Privacy Policy for their policies on user data. For easier access, we hyperlinked to their Privacy Policies below.

Privacy Policies

You may consult this list to find the Privacy Policy for each of the advertising partners of English Adam. Our Privacy Policy was created with the help of the Privacy Policy Generator.

Third-party ad servers or ad networks uses technologies like cookies, JavaScript, or Web Beacons that are used in their respective advertisements and links that appear on English Adam, which are sent directly to users' browser. They automatically receive your IP address when this occurs. These technologies are used to measure the effectiveness of their advertising campaigns and/or to personalize the advertising content that you see on websites that you visit.

Note that English Adam has no access to or control over these cookies that are used by third-party advertisers.

Third Party Privacy Policies

English Adam's Privacy Policy does not apply to other advertisers or websites. Thus, we are advising you to consult the respective Privacy Policies of these third-party ad servers for more detailed information. It may include their practices and instructions about how to opt-out of certain options. You may find a complete list of these Privacy Policies and their links here: Privacy Policy Links.

You can choose to disable cookies through your individual browser options. To know more detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers, it can be found at the browsers' respective websites. What Are Cookies?

Children's Information

Another part of our priority is adding protection for children while using the internet. We encourage parents and guardians to observe, participate in, and/or monitor and guide their online activity.

English Adam does not knowingly collect any Personal Identifiable Information from children under the age of 13. If you think that your child provided this kind of information on our website, we strongly encourage you to contact us immediately and we will do our best efforts to promptly remove such information from our records.

Online Privacy Policy Only

This Privacy Policy applies only to our online activities and is valid for visitors to our website with regards to the information that they shared and/or collect in English Adam. This policy is not applicable to any information collected offline or via channels other than this website.

Consent

By using our website, you hereby consent to our Privacy Policy and agree to its Terms and Conditions.

For more info: https://www.privacypolicygenerator.info/live.php?token=eVKiHqAFHQmy3Vvu2Cqcx8Lhwj57F7G9

We apologise that using the service requires you to accept our cookie policy

2. The Past Simple and Present Perfect Simple

[All information copyrighted to EnglishAdam.com]


Past Simple v Present Perfect Simple



Let's recap from Chapter 1!.....What do VERBS describe?

Verbs can describe Actions, States, Experiences, Emotions etc!

Click me!



And... What do TENSES ‘primarily’ describe? Or relate to?
(This is not the whole truth but for the moment it is more than adequate.)

Well they don't describe actions! We just said Verbs describe Actions! The TENSES 'primarily' describe TIME!!!!

Click me!



What does the PAST SIMPLE describe?

Finished Actions? NO!!!!
We just said that VERBS describe ACTIONS!
And TENSES describe TIME ('for now')
So... think about it in terms of TIME.

Click me!



So... What does the PAST SIMPLE describe?

Yes. It describes FINISHED TIME!
Or in other words the PAST.

Click me!



And so... What does it NOT describe, the PAST SIMPLE?

It does NOT describe the PRESENT NOR the FUTURE.
It has no direct information about the present or the future.

Click me!



What does the PRESENT PERFECT describe, and not describe?

The PRESENT PERFECT describes the PRESENT and the PAST, but NOT the FUTURE.

Click me!



If we talk about YESTERDAY what TENSE do we use?

It's FINISHED TIME, so PAST SIMPLE
I studied English yesterday.

Click me!



If we talk about TODAY what TENSE do we use?

It's UNFINISHED TIME (PAST and PRESENT) so unless we refer to the FUTURE we use the PRESENT PERFECT!
I have done lots of things today!

Click me!



If we talk about THIS YEAR what TENSE do we use?

It's UNFINISHED TIME (PAST and PRESENT) so unless we refer to the FUTURE we use the PRESENT PERFECT!
I have been to Ireland twice this year.

Click me!



If we talk about AN HOUR AGO what TENSE do we use?

It's FINISHED TIME, so PAST SIMPLE
I called him an hour ago.

Click me!



If we talk about THE INFLUENCE OF SHAKESPEARE what TENSE do we use?

It's UNFINISHED TIME (PAST and PRESENT) so unless we refer to the FUTURE we use the PRESENT PERFECT!
Shakespeare has been a big influence on my life.

Click me!



If we talk about ANCIENT ROME what TENSE do we use?

It's FINISHED TIME, so PAST SIMPLE
The Romans made excellent roads!

Click me!



If we talk about THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND what TENSE do we use?

It's UNFINISHED TIME (PAST and PRESENT) so unless we refer to the FUTURE we use the PRESENT PERFECT!
England has had kings and queens for centuries.

Click me!



If we talk about THE LIFE OF SHAKESPEARE what TENSE do we use?

It's FINISHED TIME, so PAST SIMPLE
Shakespeare was born and died on 23rd April.

Click me!



If we talk about THIS MONTH what TENSE do we use?

It's UNFINISHED TIME (PAST and PRESENT) so unless we refer to the FUTURE we use the PRESENT PERFECT!
I haven't been ill this month yet!

Click me!



If we talk about YOUR LIFE what TENSE do we use?

It's UNFINISHED TIME (PAST and PRESENT) so unless we refer to the FUTURE we use the PRESENT PERFECT!
I have been there every year since I was born.

Click me!



If we talk about 2 SECONDS AGO what TENSE do we use?

It's FINISHED TIME, so PAST SIMPLE
I gave it to you 2 seconds ago!

Click me!



If we talk about YOUR FAVOURITE HOLIDAY what TENSE do we use?

It's FINISHED TIME, so PAST SIMPLE
My favourite holiday was last year, we went to India!

Click me!



If we talk about THIS MORNING what TENSE do we use?

Well this depends! If this morning is FINISHED, then PAST SIMPLE. If we are still in the morning, and we are not talking about the future, then the PRESENT PERFECT!

Click me!



Imagine the following scenario....
Rebecca plans to study English from 3pm to 5pm today.

For the following questions you can answer using:
"I have studied for 2 hours."
"I studied for 2 hours."
"I am studying for 2 hours."

First Question: What can she say at 4pm?

"I am studying for 2 hours."
Because she is describing the PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE she can use the PRESENT TENSE. Here the CONTINUOUS ASPECT is used because it is TEMPORARY, ACTIVITY focused. See Chapter 1 for more details.

Click me!



2nd Question: What can she say at 5pm?

"I have studied for 2 hours."
Because the time is right up to now, the PRESENT, she is describing the PAST and PRESENT, so the PRESENT TENSE but not the FUTURE, so the PERFECT ASPECT. Hence, the PRESENT PERFECT.

Click me!



3rd Question: What can she say at 6pm?

Option A is.....
"I studied for 2 hours."
The PAST SIMPLE because the two hours are finished.

Click me!



And what is OPTION B? What else can she say?

"I have studied for 2 hours."

Click me!



Why can she also use the PRESENT PERFECT?

Well... this goes back to the idea that TENSES don't describe ACTIONS, they describe TIME.
And so what if Rebecca was describing her afternoon?

This means that she would use the PRESENT PERFECT because the afternoon is not finished and so she would include her studying in that time.

THE QUESTION NOW BECOMES WHY DOES SHE WANT TO DESCRIBE THE WHOLE AFTERNOON and not just those 2 hours?!?

Click me!



The fundamental idea, the fundamental purpose of the PRESENT PERFECT is to give information about...

...the PRESENT.

Click me!



And to give that information it uses what happened in the...

...PAST.

Click me!



So for example, what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have eaten."

Well, perhaps you are saying that you are not hungry!

Why are you not hungry?
Because I have eaten.

Click me!



And what tense is "I am not hungry."?

It's the PRESENT TENSE, it is directly giving information about now.

Click me!



It is interesting to note that if the PRESENT PERFECT were 'stolen' from the ENGLISH LANGAUGE (ha ha!), to replace a lot of the meaning that we use the PRESENT PERFECT for, we would need to USE the PRESENT tense (not the PAST tense!).

Well.. the PRESENT PERFECT is a PRESENT TENSE of course, with the PERFECT ASPECT!

More examples please!

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have seen that film."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have seen the film) you can talk about it, recommend it etc

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have finished my work."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have finished your work) you can go home, you can relax etc

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have missed my bus."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have missed your bus) you are late.

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have been to America."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have been to America) you can tell me all about America, or that you don't want to go again, or whatever!

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have worked all day."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have worked all day) you are tired.

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have read Catch-22."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have read the book) you can tell me about it.

Click me!



So what information COULD the following sentence communicate?

"I have studied for two hours."

Perhaps you are saying that (because you have studied for two hours) you are prepared for the exam, you are proud of yourself, you have done enough for today, you deserve a rest, etc etc!

Note how in all the examples of what information is being given, the information given is in the PRESENT!

Click me!



Let's have a look at this in another way...
How much information does the PAST SIMPLE give about the PRESENT?

ZERO. It describes FINISHED TIME and FINISHED TIME doesn't include the PRESENT.

Click me!



So what TENSE do we use when we want to tell a story?
When the end of the story should be unknown?

The PAST!

I walked into the room and saw the dragon eating his elephant sandwich, and I said to him...

Click me!



Now compare these 2 scenarios:

A friend walks into your office and says...
A "I left my wallet on the bus."
B "I have left my wallet on the bus."

In scenario A, does your friend have their wallet now?

We don't know!!!

If you use the PAST you are giving ZERO INFORMATION about the PRESENT.
We can imagine from his body language or his voice if he has, but not from the language.

"So I left my wallet on the bus and as I was getting off I realised, so just as the bus doors were closing I...."
It's a story, the speaker doesn't want us to know how the story ends, so he uses the PAST. And we have to listen if we want to find out!

Click me!



In scenario B, does your friend have their wallet now?

Probably not (see below). He is talking about the PRESENT and wants you to understand something about his PRESENT situation.

Click me!



What might his message about the PRESENT be?

Perhaps it is saying he needs to call the bus company. Or he would like you to give him some money. Or to feel sorry for him!

Click me!



So just to look at this sentence, "I have left my wallet on the bus.", can you think of a situation where the speaker says it AND has their wallet now??

Well, what if they had once left their wallet on the bus?
What if they are simply describing their whole life and an experience they once had.
And the reason?
Perhaps YOU have left YOUR wallet on the bus, and they just want to empathize with you because they know NOW how it can feel.

Click me!



Consider the following pair of sentences:
X - My granddad has been to Greece.
Y - My granddad went to Greece.

Are there any interesting observations you can make about the two speakers and their respective granddads?

Well, all we can probably say with some certainty is that X's granddad is still alive because the speaker is describing his UNFINISHED life.

This does NOT mean that Y's granddad is dead! We just have NO INFORMATION about him regarding the PRESENT.

Click me!



One last final scenario:

As well as the dragon, you too eat an elephant sandwich!
You finished the sandwich at 1.59pm.

At 2.00pm, can you say "I have eaten an elephant sandwich."?

Why? Why not?

Yes you can! Perhaps you are saying you are full now!

Click me!



At 4.00pm, can you say "I have eaten an elephant sandwich."?

Why? Why not?

Yes you can! Perhaps you are saying you are still full now!

Click me!



At 2.00pm the next day, can you say "I have eaten an elephant sandwich."?

Why? Why not?

Yes you can! Perhaps you are saying you have a bad stomach bug!

Click me!



And one year later, can you say "I have eaten an elephant sandwich."?

Why? Why not?

Yes you can!
Perhaps you are saying you have the experience of eating an elephant sandwich and can tell us what it tastes like!

Click me!



Finally a little test.
What scenarios could you think of for someone saying,
"I have lost my credit card."?

Just like the wallet it could have happened 30 secounds ago and the person is worried now,
or it happened 30 years ago and the person thinks they know what to do in such an event!

Click me!


[Sourced: EnglishAdam.com]

Test Your Knowledge!

Question


What does the PAST SIMPLE describe?

Theory Test


Click to show

Answer


FINISHED TIME

(NOT Finished Actions!!!)

Notes


Click to show

Notes


No specific notes on this question yet, sorry.
3860267120

[EnglishAdam.com]

Practice Your Knowledge!

Cards coming soon!

Manage Your Studies!


Changed!



Changed!



Changed!



Changed!



Changed!