[ALL MY POSTS ARE WORKS IN PROGRESS...!]
My personal approach, and advice to students, is approximately this model:
For me if you imagine language learning is like a funnel, then at the top - ready to go down into the funnel and into your brain - there SHOULDN'T be a big block of language. A big elephant of a mess! There is no way your Brain can structure that much disorder.
Yes there has to be a lot of input BUT the input should be understandable and IDEALLY the student should be active. It is no use just observing the language passively.
Ideally a student should be thinking, interested, motivated to interact with this language in some way. It is so important for students to ENJOY this phase, and that is why I always say to change your activities if you get bored and to choose topics and styles of input that you like.
For now here is a list of important factors that the IDEAL input might include.
Basically INPUT is anything and everything. But what happens between INPUT and MEMORIZATION is vital!
INPUT is a major activity in learning a language. It should be fun and interesting, the language aspect should be a side issue, even 'learning' could be secondary here.
What's just as important is to enjoy the activity.
The thinking is that since learning a language is indeed a long process then the only way to keep going for a long time is to enjoy it. Otherwise you are simply battling against the language every day. Embrace it. Enjoy it. Get value from it at every step.
Making it your enemy will only mean it stays your enemy.
The second phase is possibly the most difficult, the most taxing, but once you have a firm idea about the direction you are taking your English towards then it also becomes the easiest.
The second phase is FILTERING.
While you are enjoying all this wonderful INPUT in English, the back of your mind is wondering...
"What should I be doing with all of this lovely English? I should be learning it!".
FILTERING is the step between INPUT and MEMORIZATION.
While INPUT 'should' be fun and interesting, MEMORIZATION is a little painful, a little boring, a little long.
It is the necessary step in fixing some information so that you can retrieve it easily. And it is not realistic to try and memorize all of English in one go. You should try and memorize what you need for your next goal(s).
This is where FILTERING steps in.
FILTERING is the conscious choice to take some of the INPUT and put it into your MEMORIZATION process.
But remember that MEMORIZATION is big drain of energy so don't try and learn everything at once.
One positive side effect of thinking about the FILTERING process is that it will really help you to also decide what type of activities to definitely include in your INPUT phase.
If you want to improve your pronunciation, your Business English, phrasal verbs, whatever... where will you find the information and examples that you will want to COPY, IMITATE and MEMORIZE?
A final thought on FILTERING is the simple idea (which is valid for all parts of your English learning) and that is you can change your mind, change your focus in the future.
Maybe you will be all about idioms this week, then 3 months doing listening practice, then 2 weeks with some grammar issue, etc etc, it's fine to change interests, what is important is to keep studying and the trick is to KEEP YOURSELF INTERESTED AND MOTIVATED!
So what is MEMORIZATION? Why is it so important? Is it necessary?
An analogy that I like about Language Learning is that we have a 'little library' for EACH of our Languages!
Let's just consider your native language or languages...
Here this library is full of books. Each book is a word or a phrase or an altermative meaning for a word or phrase - possibly even many books for the same word!
And this room has THOUSANDS upon THOUSANDS of books on many many shelves, and you are sitting in the middle of this room.
And when you speak your long arms reach out and grab these books and use the words written there. Sometimes you make a joke and you go for one word but then you grab a different one and people laugh.
Sometimes you are doing a crossword and you just can't find a word, a word that you know is somewhere in the room.
Other times some words are passive, you know what they mean, but you aren't so good at reaching out and finding them. Perhaps the words are technical, like medical words or legal words. You have a good understanding what they mean, but you just don't grab them when you talk. Perhaps you do when you are writing, perhaps when you are writing and you can stop for a moment you can think of those words.
To me this is what language and memory are like.
You are in the middle of massive room with thousands of pieces of resources and your brain is sending electrical impulses to grab things for you to say or write, or to find things that others have said or written.
It is happening hundreds of times a second perhaps!
And I think the fundamental idea here is that the more you reach for these books - either to say them or to understand them then the stronger that 'connection' between you and that word, that phrase, that 'book' becomes!
Like an 'Electrical Muscle'!
Before we even think about a new language, consider this analogy for when you started a new subject at school or university.
Or when there was some new project or software at work.
Or a new hobby.
Or even a new TV show that used strange language. And of course in TV shows and films we have to learn new character names, and in life we have to learn names for real people, and of course we often forget... until with all these things, over time and repeated use they become memorized.
So we begin by putting the new book onto a shelf in the library. Ideally near things that are related.
And then we grab that book again and again, eventually grabbing that technical term, that person's name etc etc becomes second nature.
Interestingly with this analogy is how NOT continuing to use that word, phrase or information makes it harder and harder to find. How many times have you forgotten an old classmate's name, or an ex-colleagues's name after passing years and years with them in the past!
As they say about Muscles, and the Brain... USE IT OR LOSE IT!!!
So what about new languages?
Well it is the same process.
However we start with quite an empty room! We need to put books on the shelves, we need to put LOTS of books on the shelves - this is the INPUT stage...
This analogy shows why students often feel that they 'understand' when others speak but can't say the same words when they speak!
The books are on their 'shelf' but it needs the other speaker (or INPUT/MEMORIZATION) to keep showing you where it is!
THIS IS NORMAL!
This is why the fundamental problem a language learner faces is often, HOW DO I ACCELERATE MY ABILITY TO GRAB 'BOOKS'??
Yes, it would be great to go and live in a place where people only speak that language.
Yes, it would be great to spend hours and hours on 'fun' INPUT, absorbing the language naturally as children do with their mother tongue.
But the reality here is that those are very expensive and slow methods. Children take a dozen years of school of many many hours everyday to achieve what would be considered a good vocabulary range.
GOOD MEMORIZATION TECHNIQUES AND ACTIVITIES AIM TO HELP THE ADULT LEARNER GET TO THEIR DESIRED ABILITY FASTER.
So how do we memorize stuff? Well there are some factors such as:
One way to think about increasing the initial impact is to build around it, work with it, use it, add to it. Students often associate the idea of 'saying' it in class as a fundamental tool, but this is just one of the possibilities. Some more ideas are:
Aiming to do all these activities with every single word or phrase would be IMPOSSIBLE.
I think these very Time Intensive activities are ONLY Realistically usable for Language that you really want as ACTIVE and not just Passive.
This also highlights how MEMORIZATION IS NOT THE DIFFICULT PART, it's CHOOSING WHAT TO MEMORIZE!!!
Once you know what you want to learn, then there are lots of activities you can use.
In my personal and professional opinion I would recommend...
Yes, AIM to give the word an INITIAL IMPACT and then REPETITION. But...Repetition for me is THE KEY ACTIVITY.
Repetition is going to increase its longevity, however the bigger the impact the EASIER it will be to reach and reinforce its longevity!
EnglishAdam.com is exactly about that repetition process. It aims to offer a trustworthy and friendly repetition tool.
I do not think a student has to use only one system.
Why not use more, Quizlet, Duolingo, Anki... etc etc? Keep them all going, small collections in each one, aim to go through each one for 5-10 minutes a day.
Personally I use a few systems. I make my own cards, too. I use it for all kinds of things, for quotes, for personal ideas, jobs to do, personal mantras, new things I am trying to learn in Italian, cooking, design whatever... IT CAN BE A GREAT APPROACH to all of the useful info that life throws at you!!
I think a MAJOR EXTRA ADVANTAGE is that it allows you to 'feel' that it has been organized, that you do not need to worry about it disappearing or being forgotten, it is in one of your systems and even if you skip a few days it'll come back, BREATHE IN and RELAX!
OUTPUT is primarily SPEAKING and WRITING, it is fundamental because it will give you a sense of accomplishment about what you have learnt - the fact that it acts as ONE TYPE of Memorization is probably less important - and hopefully it will be FUN!
It allows the fundamental purpose of language : self expression!
It allows your language to get feedback which can loop back into the INPUT and FILTER and MEMORIZATION steps in a continual loop.
I think it is also VITAL that the output is actually meaningful. Nothing bores students more than meaningless conversations, or artificial writing exercises.
I do not consider maybe classroom or homework exercises as OUTPUT. Exercises or drills where students repeat sentences or structures I consider part of MEMORIZATION.
Output for me would include a spontaneous and free choice of internally grabbing the language in a meaningful, useful and ideally interesting context!